20.12.2017
Источник: The DairyNews

THE 6 FREEDOMS OF PASTURE


Providing optimal cow comfort in a cubicle system is not easy. In the pasture it is easy: here they are provided with the seven basic needs from the CowSignals Diamond: feed, water, light, air, rest, space & health.

Of course, it is not always possible to keep your cows in the fields. Inside, the next best thing is the free walking straw barn (or sand/ sawdust). Cows around calving 
(3 weeks before till 3 weeks after) should always get the freedoms of a free straw pack (stress-free calving line).


THINKING OUT OF THE BOX

 


Free stall design Stress-free calving line

Photo by Joep Driessen Photo by Joep Driessen


THE 6 SUCCESS FACTORS OF CUBICLE DESIGN

If you have your cows in cubicle systems it is important to do everything right if you want to keep your cows clean and healthy. In this whitepaper we give you six success factors that will help you keep your cows comfortable during the winter. The advices given here are based on an average Holstein Frisian cow of 650 kilogram. Measure your own cows first, and adapt to that


  1. Soft and grippy bed floor

  2. Free head swing space

  3. Neck rail out of the way, up and forward (flexible)

  4. Low brisket locator with enough lying surface behind

  5. Width of the cubicle

  6. Shape of the divider (flexible)



1. SOFT AND GRIPPY BED FLOOR

Softness prevents front knee and hock damage. Good grip prevents slipping and sliding and backbone and hock damage.

These are materials that you could use:

  • Sand

  • Deep straw

  • Separated dry manure (green bedding)

  • Deep saw dust (15-30 centimeters)

A very soft rubber mattress with a minimum of 5-10 centimeters foam as under layer is a reasonable alternative but needs lots of bedding on top daily and will always cause more knee and hock lesions. You always need good ventilation, 2-3 times a day cleaning and/or once a day/3 times a week filling with fresh material to prevent manure and milk remnants to cause high cell count and mastitis.




Deep sand bedding is the best for cows.

Another option is dried manure, but this needs better ventilation or 3x per week fresh bedding to reach the same udder health results.

With weekly filling, a brisket locator might not be necessary in sand. Just fill more in the front than in the back.

Photo by Joep Driessen



 


Deep straw is excellent, cows love it.

A mix with lime and water can reduce costs, labour and mastitis.


Photo by Christian Manser



 


Deep saw dust is very nice.

Make sure you give them enough space. Free head swing space is too short here.

Watch out for saw dust of a poor quality, this risks serious mastitis outbreaks with Klebsiella.

Photo by Christian Manser



Extra info in our blogs:

  • Sand vs mattress

  • Soft beds for cows is the new standard

  • CowSignals’ best practice: recipe for lime-straw-water bedding


2. FREE HEAD SWING SPACE

Free head swing space is essential for cows to move, stand up and ly down easy. She needs her head as contra weight for her heavy back side, so she will have a soft landing and an easy stand up. A cow should be able to ly down with her head straight forward and up.

If you give a cow enough head space, you will see less backbone damage and less manure in the corners of the cubicle.

Head space on the sides of the cubicles are a VERY BAD alternative. They cause many hock, back and teat damage.




No free head space.

We recommend a minimum of 330 cm in a single row.

Photo by Christian Manser



Free head space.

Double rows should be 540 cm size from curb to curb.

Photo by Christian Manser

For good free head swing space we advise up to 325-350 centimeter (cm) from the back end of the lying surface. Also, we like at least 1 meter high free space from the lying surface. For the ideal measurements of a cubicle, see next page.

More info:


MEASUREMENTS FOR AN OPTIMAL CUBICLE

For a Holstein cow, 650 kg, 147 cm high, 270 cm long from nose to tail head.

Measurements depend on cow size, measure your own cows!

Measurements for an ideal cubicle – part 1 & part 2


3. NECK RAIL OUT OF THE WAY, UP AND FORWARD

The hard neck rail is only needed for stability. Make sure it is out of the way for the cow, at least at 160 cm high, so cows will never hit metal when they accidently travel trough.

The best position of the other, flexible neck rail is 125 cm above the lying surface and 180 cm from the back side of the cubicle (horizontal measuring). Check: cows must easily walk in and stand in the bed with 4 feet.

To prevent cows from walking through we advise a flexible band at 100 cm high in the middle of a double row, or far ahead in a single row. Don’t focus too much on making it impossible for cows to walk through. We would rather see a shy heifer have this as a safe escape route if she’s being bothered by more dominant cows. Metal pipes can break backbones in these kind of situations!





100 cm high flex band is an option to learn scared cows not to walk through. Many farms don’t have any band.


If the hard neck rail is low, more cows get serious backbone injury when walking through.


Quiet cow handling makes less cows walk through

Photo by Christian Manser


A flexible band or chain can be positioned a bit tighter: 115 cm high and 175 cm from backside, because it gives 10 cm extra space. There are several options for a flexible neck rail:

  • a Springbox

  • a chain with rubber coverage

  • a flexible bar in loops


 

A chain with rubber coverage, A Flexible bar in loops

photo by Christian Manser Photo by Joep Driessen

With a flexible neck band or chain cows walk in the cubicle more straight. They don’t hurt themselves while standing up and lying down. Less fear will also make less cows shit in their beds.

Start with the maximum size, based on the biggest cows. A flexible system is easy to adjust.

Heifer groups can do with slightly less space (10-15%) than cow groups.


4. LOW BRISKET LOCATOR WITH ENOUGH LYING SURFACE BEHIND

Cows need a brisket locator to tell her were to ly down. It is important to have enough lying surface behind it. How long is your own bed? Shorter then your body length? Of course not! Cows like space too.

The length behind the brisket locator should be at least 185 cm. We recommend even a minimum of 195 cm, like the Swiss cow house law. We also see 200 cm. If you start measuring cows, you see many are using 210 cm to ly down on. If you use 195 or 200 centimeters, she can stand up without hitting the neck rail very badly.

A brisket locator of maximum 5 cm above the lying surface is ok. Make the top part rounded. Cows like only a low, narrow, rounded brisket locator because then she can stretch her legs over it and it is easy to step over it while standing up. This is an essential move; if you give her this space, less cows will shit in the beds because of less stress.

For material rounded wood or plastic pipes do an excellent job. We don’t like iron, because it is too hard and too cold.

With deep straw 25 cm x 6 cm wooden planks are used with rounded top.




 


More space is needed. And/or you have to fill the cubicles till the edge every day/week.


195 cm is better than 180 cm…. many places are less than 175 cm… Cows like to have 195 cm or more!!


Often you see tail out in shit: more mastitis and higher cell count

Photo by Jan Hulsen



5. WIDTH OF THE CUBICLE

In a spacey cubicle we find less hock, backbone and teat trauma. Also cows have more resting time, more feed intake and a higher milk production.

The minimum width we advise is 122 cm measured from the middle of the dividers in a deep bedding system. For cubicles with a mattress we advise 127 cm width to reach the same resting time.

We advise 125 cm for cows, Dry cows need 135 cm, 1st lactation heifers can do with 120 cm.

  * 131 cm heart to heart is Swiss law. 

195 cm long free space is also Swiss law.



6. SHAPE OF THE DIVIDER

Make sure the divider doesn’t bother the cow. This only causes wounds.

For material there are several options. Flexible pipes are better than metal because it gives less risks for wounded back and ribs. Some systems use a half round wood of 8 cm high and wide on the last meter under the backside of the divider. This keeps the lower layer of deep straw bedding in place, gives grip and makes the cow ly down more straight.





Make sure the divider doesn’t bother the back bone, or the last ribs.

There is less risk if they are wider (>120 centimeters) and longer (>190 cm)


Photo by Christian Manser






Flexible pipes give less risks for wounded back and ribs.


Photo by Christian Manser





Flexible loops


Photo by Christian Manser


IF THE BARN IS HALF EMPTY, WE SEE MORE COWS LYING DIAGONALLY. THIS IS POSSIBLE IF YOU USE FLEXIBLE DIVIDERS: COWS CAN USE TWO CUBICLES.


BONUS SUCCESS FACTORS

Of course, there are more factors involved in designing ideal cubicles. So, we’ll just give you 3 more bonus success factors here.

  • Excellent air is needed to keep the beds dry

  • 3x a day cleaning/raking. You can prepare the beds during milking

  • Daily/weekly filling with new material

  • Cross breed cows have more mussels, so there is less risk on hock bruises.




You want fresh air where the heads are.

Open walls are best.


Photo by Christian Manser





Open buildings have better air, dryer beds and floors & less mastitis and hoof infections.


Photo by Christian Manser





Fans needed to keep the beds dry & to supply dry, fresh air to the cows while resting.


Photo by Christian Manser



GET AS CLOSE TO OPTIMAL AS POSSIBLE: DO THIS FIRST IN YOUR BARN:

If you’re not designing a new barn at the moment, get as close as possible with reconstruction. Adapt 10 cubicles in your current barn as much as possible to the drawing below and let your cows convince you. The drawing is based on 650 kilogram Holstein Frisians, 2-3 times daily cleaning and good ventilation. Measurements depend on cow size, so measure your biggest cows first.

Your priorities should be:

  1. Make soft, deep beds
    It is possible to put a deep bed of 20 centimeters on top of 20 centimeter concrete. Cows can handle a step till 40 centimeters.

  2. Give enough head space

  3. Move the neck rail out of the way

  4. Give them space: make the beds wide enough

Breaking out the wall gives extra space and air.
Photo by Christian Manser


CUBICLE DESIGN BY OUR SWISS COWSIGNALS MASTER TRAINER CHRISTIAN MANSER

Swiss cubicles are by law 131 cm wide and 195 cm long (depending on cow size).



IN CONCLUSION

The very best option is a free compost or free straw pack for all your cows. This is rather expensive in most countries. So we recommend this straw yard for 5-10% of the high risk animals: stress-free calving line. For the rest of the herd we recommend beds wits deep filled sand, straw or dried manure.

Good luck with improving you dairy farm. Let your cows live twice as long!

Start tomorrow with the first 10 beds.


Take care,

Kind regards,

Joep Driessen

Christian Manser

Чтобы оставить комментарий, пожалуйста, авторизуйтесь

14.11.2018

Черная дыра информационных систем

Над рынком пищевой продукции встала тень очередного проекта властей по "прослеживаемости" на рынке. По итогам заседания Правительства, состоявшегося 31 октября, органам власти поручено проработать вопрос и обеспечить совместимость информационных систем в области качества продуктов питания, подконтрольных Минпромторгу, Россельхознадзору и Роспотребнадзору.
Маяк Высокое, ОАО
Адрес:  Беларусь, Витебская область, Оршанский район, деревня Купелка 
 
Колхоз Дружба, сельскохозяйственная артель
Адрес:  с. Ахрат, ул. Школьная, д. 31 
 
МОЛОЧАЯ ИНДУСТРИЯ, ООО
Адрес:  г. Белгород, бульвар Юности, д. 19 кв. 20